More of the same!

19th September 2019 – overcast then bright and sunny V1
Offshore
A scan of the sea revealed 6 Shag.
Grounded Migrants
Only a few grounded birds were noted including: 9 Goldcrest, 3 Chiffchaff, 3 Wheatear and single Blackcap and Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
Birds remain on the move although totals were reduced on yesterday with 250 Meadow Pipit, 90 Pink-footed Goose, 48 Grey Wagtail, 40 Skylark, 20 Chaffinch, 5 Swallow and a Sand Martin logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Two Whimbrel were the best of the waders.
Miscellaneous
Two Merlin were the best of the rest

First Brent Geese arrive

18th September 2019 – overcast NE1
Offshore
The sea provided 7 Shag, 10 Common Scoter and 7 Razorbill.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds included: 50 Robin, 16 Goldcrest, 14 Stonechat, 8 Chiffchaff, 2 Whinchat, 2 Willow Warbler, 2 Wheatear, 2 White Wagtail and a Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
Variety was the order of the day with 1100 Meadow Pipit, 625 Pink-footed Geese, 200 Skylark, 105 Linnet, 70 Swallow, 40 Grey Wagtail, 28 Pied Wagtail, 4 Reed Bunting, 4 Sand Martin, 3 Chaffinch, 3 Rook, 2 Buzzard and a late Swift logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
The first Brent Geese have returned with 19 pale-bellied birds logged. Waders included 6000 Oystercatcher, 1000 Redshank, 300 Turnstone, 18 Greenshank and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin and 2 Raven were the best of the rest

A quieter day under clear skies

17th September 2019 – bright and sunny NNW2/3
Offshore
A single scan of the sea revealed 6 Shag and 2 Gannet.
Grounded Migrants
The bright and clear conditions provided few grounded migrants involved with just 7 Goldcrest and 2 Blackbird logged.
Diurnal Migration
Quieter than yesterday with 520 Pink-footed Geese, 300 Meadow Pipit, 24 Swallow, 21 Chaffinch, 20 Skylark, 16 Tree Sparrow, 12 Grey Wagtail and a Tree Pipit recorded.
Miscellaneous
A Peregrine was the best of the rest

Pink-footed Geese pour south

16th September 2019 – sunny spells V1 then WNW3
Grounded Migrants
Grounded migrants involved 17 Goldcrest, 14 Wheatear, 2 Chiffchaff, 2 Blackcap, 2 Willow Warbler and a Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
Pink-footed Geese dominated the skies through the morning with 1805 birds logged, also seen were 800 Meadow Pipit, 80 Skylark, 65 Swallow, 28 Grey Wagtail, 18 Chaffinch, 9 Tree Sparrow and single House Martin and Tree Pipit.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 6000 Oystercatcher, 1200 Redshank, 500 Knot, 200 Turnstone, 14 Greenshank and 2 Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin was the best of the rest

Migration stalls

15th September 2019 – overcast/drizzle at times NW2/3
Offshore
Early morning observations (0800-0900) produced 67 Common Scoter, 8 Razorbill, 5 Red-throated Diver and a first-winter Mediterranean Gull. The Black Guillemot was again along the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Birds were sparse with just 6 Goldcrest, 3 Chiffchaff, 3 Blackcap and single Whitethroat and White Wagtail logged .
Diurnal Migration
Limited to a solitary Grey Wagtail amongst a few Meadow Pipit.
Wildfowl and Waders
Wildfowl included 12 Wigeon and 6 Pintail.
Miscellaneous
Seven members of the “crow family” were recorded on the island with 5 Jay, 4 Rook, 2 Raven and a Hooded Crow seen along with Carrion Crow, Jackdaw and Magpie. Single Merlin, Buzzard and Little Owl were the best of the rest

Diurnal migration dominates sightings

14th September 2019 – sunny spells ESE2/3 then SW2/3
Offshore
At high tide the Black Guillemot was still in residence off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
A few birds were again evident with 16 White Wagtail, 8 Stonechat, 6 Goldcrest, 3 Wheatear and single Willow Warbler and Whitethroat logged.
Diurnal Migration
Birds were again on the move early morning with 1000 Meadow Pipit, 90 Skylark, 85 Swallow, 14 Grey Wagtail, 12 Linnet. 7 House Martin, 4 Sand Martin, 3 Chaffinch and single Mistle Thrush and Tree Sparrow.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 6 Greenshank and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
A Little Owl was the best of the rest.

Migration restarts

13th September 2019 – sunny spells NNE1 then WNW2/3
Offshore
At high tide the Black Guillemot was still in residence off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
A few birds were evident with 8 Goldcrest, 6 Wheatear, 4 Chiffchaff and single Willow Warbler and Blackcap logged.
Diurnal Migration
Birds were on the move early morning with 680 Meadow Pipit, 45 Pink-footed Goose, 36 Grey Wagtail, 28 Skylark, 20 Swallow, 12 Tree Sparrow and a Sand Martin seen.
Wildfowl and Waders
A Greenshank was the pick of the waders.
Miscellaneous
Two Raven and a Peregrine remain the best of the rest.

Still looking at the sea!

12th September 2019 – overcast, mizzle/murk soon SSW4/5/6
Offshore
Observations over the sea on the rising tide prior to the rain (0700-0800) produced 115 Common Scoter, 20 Gannet, 12 Razorbill, 3 Red-throated Diver, 3 Guillemot and single Kittiwake, and Manx Shearwater. In addition high tide saw the long-staying Black Guillemot again off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Single Chiffchaff, Goldcrest and Blackcap was all that could be mustered.
Diurnal Migration
Three Grey Wagtail moved through before the weather closed in.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included Whimbrel and Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
Two Raven and a Peregrine were the best of the rest.

Back looking at the sea!

11th September 2019 – early rain clearing WSW4
Offshore
Observations over the sea as the rain cleared through (0830-1030) produced 125 Razorbill, 100 Common Scoter, 20 Gannet, 17 Red-throated Diver, 9 Kittiwake, 6 Guillemot, 4 Fulmar, 3 Sandwich Tern and single Manx Shearwater.
Grounded Migrants
Just 2 Wheatear were seen.

Black Guillemot still in residence

10th September 2019 – sunny spells N1 then WNW3
Offshore
The juvenile Black Guillemot continues to linger off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds were limited to 4 Goldcrest, 2 Blackcap and single Wheatear, Sedge Warbler and Chiffchaff.
Diurnal Migration
A few birds were on the move early morning with 500 Meadow Pipit, 50 Grey Wagtail, 6 Swallow and single Tree Sparrow, Tree Pipit and Yellow Wagtail logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Wildfowl included 9 Wigeon, 2 Shoveler and a Pintail.
Miscellaneous
Two Raven were again the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
At total of 60 moths of 18 species were attracted overnight with Lunar Underwing new for the year.

Black Guillemot remains

9th September 2019 – rain/mizzle/murk SE2
Offshore
The juvenile Black Guillemot continues to linger off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Few grounded birds were present, however single Yellow Wagtail and Chiffchaff were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 30 Greenshank and 3 Shoveler were amongst 120 Teal.
Miscellaneous
Two Raven were the best of the rest.

Early morning Osprey

8th September 2019 –sunny spells V1/2
Offshore
Highlight over the sea involved 2 first-winter Mediterranean Gulls, also seen were 17 Sandwich Tern, 6 Gannet and a Red-throated Diver.
Grounded Migrants
A few grounded birds were seen including 10 Robin, 6 Goldcrest, 5 Whitethroat, 3 Chiffchaff, 3 White Wagtail, 2 Blackcap, 2 Wheatear and a Willow Warbler.
Diurnal Migration
An Osprey drifted down the maritime shore at 0700hrs and a Buzzard flew east at 1700hrs. Also seen were 500 Meadow Pipit, 280 Swallow, 90 Skylark, 32 Grey Wagtail, 28 alba Wagtail, 26 Tree Sparrow, 12 Tree Pipit, 10 Sand Martin, 6 House Martin and a Yellow Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Four Greenshank and 3 Shoveler were logged.
Miscellaneous
A Peregrine was the best of the rest.

Passerine migration kicks off

7th September 2019 – overcast then sunny spells NNE1 then WNW2/3
Grounded Migrants
Variety was the order of the day with 13 Robin, 12 Wheatear, 8 Chiffchaff, 3 Goldcrest, 2 Willow Warbler, 2 Whitethroat, 2 Sedge Warbler and single Spotted Flycatcher and Blackcap logged.
Diurnal Migration
After the unsettled conditions so far this month birds were finally on the move in the tranquil conditions with 1150 Meadow Pipit, 450 Swallow, 160 Pink-footed Geese, 56 Grey Wagtail, 51 Skylark, 17 alba Wagtail, 16 Tree Sparrow, 14 House Martin, 9 Tree Pipit and a Yellow Wagtail recorded.
Miscellaneous
Best of the rest were 2 Raven and a Little Owl.
Butterflies and Moths
Butterflies were on the wing in the calm conditions with Red Admiral, Painted Lady, Comma, Small Copper, Peacock, Small White and Small Tortoiseshell all putting in an appearance.

A few seabirds

6th September 2019 – overcast/showers WSW6/7/8
Offshore
Prolonged observations over the sea on the falling tide (0730-1030) provided variety but little in the way of quality with just 106 Common Scoter, 15 Razorbill, 12 Gannet, 9 Manx Shearwater, 8 Kittiwake, 7 Sandwich Tern, 4 Guillemot and single Great Skua, Arctic Skua, Little Tern and Arctic Tern logged.
Grounded Migrants
Warblers involved 3 Goldcrest, 2 Chiffchaff and a Blackcap.

First Pink-footed Geese of the autumn

5th September 2019 – sunshine and showers NW4/5/6
Offshore
Common Scoters were again on the move early morning (0700-0800) with 280 birds logged, also seen were 6 Gannet, 6 Razorbill, 3 Red-throated Diver, 2 Sandwich Tern and single Fulmar, Red-breasted Merganser and Manx Shearwater.
Grounded Migrants
Migrants involved 11 Robin, 11 Chiffchaff, 2 Whitethroat and single Yellow Wagtail, Blackcap, Willow Warbler and Spotted Flycatcher.
Diurnal Migration
The first 10 Pink-footed Geese of the autumn flew through and additional sightings included 50 Meadow Pipit, 10 Grey Wagtail and 2 Tree Pipit .
Miscellaneous
A Little Owl and 2 Raven were the best of the rest.

Velvet Scoter and Hooded Crow

4th September 2019 – sunshine and heavy showers W4/5/6/7
Offshore
Common Scoters were again on the move early morning (0700-0800) with 260 birds logged, amongst which was a male Velvet Scoter. In addition, totals of 16 Gannet, 5 Fulmar, 3 Razorbill, 2 Arctic Skua, 2 Sandwich Tern and single Guillemot and Kittiwake were the sum of several checks of the sea through the day.
Grounded Migrants
Birds were still on the move despite the weather conditions with 12 Chiffchaff, 5 Goldcrest, 4 Blackcap, 2 Spotted Flycatcher and single Willow Warbler and Yellow Wagtail logged.
Miscellaneous
A Hooded Crow was the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 61 moths of 20 species were attracted overnight with immigrants involving a couple of Silver Y.

Miserable conditions

3rd September 2019 –mist/murk/drizzle SW4
Offshore
Morning observations (1000-1100) saw 7 Common Scoter, 7 Gannet, 3 Sandwich Tern, 3 Shag and single Arctic Tern and Manx Shearwater emerge through the murk.
Grounded Migrants
Fieldwork in the miserable conditions was rewarded with just 5 Chiffchaff, 3 Wheatear, 3 Goldcrest and single Blackcap, Whitethroat and Sedge Warbler.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin was the best of the rest.

Velvet Scoter

2nd September 2019 – overcast/rain soon WSW3/4
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0830) produced a male Velvet Scoter amongst 1020 Common Scoter, along with 43 Gannet, 41 Lesser Black-backed Gull, 25 Shelduck, 6 Sandwich Tern, 2 Red-throated Diver and single Kittiwake, Razorbill and Guillemot.
Grounded Migrants
Just a single Wheatear were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
A Whimbrel was seen.
Miscellaneous
Two Raven and a Peregrine were the best of the rest.

Low key start to the month

1st September 2019 – sunny spells W5/6
Offshore
Early morning observations (0700-0800) produced 400 Common Scoter, 8 Gannet, 4 Sandwich Tern, 2 Razorbill and single Arctic Skua, Kittiwake, Guillemot and Red-throated Diver. In addition the juvenile and adult Black Guillemot were still off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Just 2 Chiffchaff and single Willow Warbler and Wheatear were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 16 Greenshank.
Miscellaneous
A total of 32 Little Egret were the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 53 moths of 15 species were attracted overnight with immigrants involving Dark Swordgrass and Silver Y.

Leach’s Petrels and Black Guillemots

31st August 2019 – overcast/rain soon/then showers S5/6/7 then W5/4
Offshore
Early morning observations prior to the rain (0700-0800) produced just 10 Common Scoter, 8 Gannet, 3 Manx Shearwater and an adult Black Guillemot. A second period of observations (1100-1200) as the rain cleared to showers and the wind switched added 33 Common Scoter, 15 Gannet, 11 Razorbill, 11 Sandwich Tern, 4 Guillemot, 4 Pintail, 3 Manx Shearwater, 3 Kittiwake, 2 Leach’s Petrel, 2 Fulmar and an Arctic Skua. In addition 3800 Eider and 2 Black Guillemot (adult + juvenile) were off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Just 2 Wheatear were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Wildfowl included 32 Wigeon and 3 Shoveler while 300 Turnstone, 7 Greenshank and 3 Black-tailed Godwit were the best of the waders.

Great Skua and Shag

30th August 2019 – overcast/rain soon SW6/7
Offshore
Early morning observations prior to the rain (0700-0800) produced 29 Common Scoter, 23 Gannet, 4 Fulmar, 3 Razorbill and single Shag, Great Skua and Manx Shearwater.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 2 Greenshank and a Whimbrel.

Early morning seabirds

29th August 2019 – sunny spells SW4/5/6
Offshore
The sea was more productive than of late with early morning observations on the rising tide (0700-0900) producing 675 Common Scoter, 115 Gannet, 37 Manx Shearwater, 23 Sandwich Tern, 3 Razorbill, 2 Arctic Skua and single Arctic Skua, Kittiwake, Fulmar, Arctic Tern and Red-throated Diver.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded migrants were limited to 2 Wheatear and single Lesser Whitethroat and Whitethroat.
Wildfowl and Waders
Three Shoveler were amongst 58 Teal and waders included 1000 Redshank, 21 Greenshank, 10 Black-tailed Godwit and 2 Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A total of 32 Little Egret were the best of the rest.

A rain interrupted day

28th August 2019 – rain clearing later SSW3/4
Offshore
The sea provided just 24 Common Scoter, 21 Sandwich Tern, 5 Gannet and an Arctic Skua.
Wildfowl and Waders
Two Shoveler were amongst 52 Teal and waders included 4 Greenshank and a Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A total of 20 Little Egret were the best of the rest.

Little Gull, Marsh Harrier and Green Sandpiper

27th August 2019 – sunny spells V1/2
Offshore
Again quiet over the sea with just 23 Common Scoter, 9 Gannet and 2 Sandwich Tern logged early morning. Later a flock of 9 Little Gull (4 adults + 5 juveniles) flew high west over the island and into the Irish Sea.
Grounded Migrants
Variety rather than quantity with 5 Willow Warbler, 3 Goldcrest, 3 Whitethroat, 3 Wheatear, 2 Spotted Flycatcher and single White Wagtail, Chiffchaff, Sedge Warbler, Blackcap and Garden Warbler.
Diurnal Migration
A juvenile Marsh Harrier flew north over the island at 1200hrs and additional sightings involved totals of 180 Swallow, 120 Meadow Pipit, 105 Tree Sparrow, 40 Tree Pipit, 40 Linnet, 33 Grey Wagtail, 30 Pied Wagtail, 10 House Martin, 7 Sand Martin, 4 Reed Bunting and 2 Yellow Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 70 Sanderling, 4 Whimbrel and a Green Sandpiper.
Miscellaneous
The Hooded Crow put in another appearance and single Peregrine and Little Owl were the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 112 moths of 25 species were attracted overnight with Frosted Orange new for the year. Immigrants involved 15 Rusty Dot Pearl.

Wildfowl begin to arrive

26th August 2019 – overcast/murky start, sunny spells later V1/2
Offshore
Again quiet over the sea with just 12 Sandwich Tern, 10 Common Scoter and 9 Gannet logged.
Grounded Migrants
Very few grounded birds were in evidence with just 4 Wheatear, 3 Willow Warbler, 2 Sedge Warbler and a Whinchat recorded.
Diurnal Migration
Totals involved 360 Swallow, 40 Meadow Pipit, 11 Tree Pipit, 10 Pied Wagtail, 5 Yellow Wagtail and a Grey Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Wildfowl included 41 Teal, 8 Wigeon and a Pintail. Waders included 11 Greenshank, 2 Whimbrel and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
A Peregrine was the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 118 moths of 39 species were attracted overnight with Canary-shouldered Thorn new for the year. Immigrants involved 19 Rusty Dot Pearl.

Hooded Crow and Pied Flycatcher

25th August 2019 – bright and sunny ESE1/2
Offshore
Quiet over the sea with just 22 Sandwich Tern, 4 Common Scoter and a Gannet logged.
Grounded Migrants
A few grounded birds were in evidence including 12 Willow Warbler, 7 Whitethroat, 5 Sedge Warbler, 5 Wheatear, 2 Chiffchaff and single Pied Flycatcher, Whinchat and Yellow Wagtail.
Diurnal Migration
Hirundines were again on the move with 1000 Swallow, 57 Sand Martin and 17 House Martin recorded. Also seen were 116 Tree Sparrow, 20 Tree Pipit, 20 Meadow Pipit, 17 Pied Wagtail, 15 Grey Wagtail, 4 Swift, 3 Yellow Wagtail and 3 Collared Dove.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 6 Greenshank, 2 Whimbrel and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
Single Hooded Crow and Merlin were the best of the rest.

Mediterranean Gull

24th August 2019 – bright and sunny ESE2/3
Offshore
Although a juvenile Mediterranean Gull was seen it was generally quiet over the sea with just 8 Sandwich Tern, 6 Gannet and 4 Little Tern logged.
Grounded Migrants
The bright and sunny conditions saw grounded birds at a premium with just 4 Willow Warbler, 3 Sedge Warbler, 2 Whitethroat and 2 Yellow Wagtail.
Diurnal Migration
Hirundines were on the move with 135 Swallow, 18 House Martin and 12 Sand Martin recorded. Also seen were 12 Grey Wagtail, 9 Tree Sparrow and 6 Tree Pipit.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 230 Sanderling and 4 Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin was the best of the rest.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 60 moths of 25 species were attracted overnight with Buff Footman new for the year. Immigrants involved 4 Rusty Dot Pearl and 2 Silver Y.

Black Guillemot

23rd August 2019 – sunny spells SW3
Offshore
Slightly more productive than of late over the sea (0700-0800) with 202 Common Scoter, 41 Gannet, 6 Manx Shearwater, 3 Sandwich Tern, 2 Kittiwake and an Arctic Tern logged. Later, the eastern shore provided 5030 Eider and single Black Guillemot and Red-breasted Merganser.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds were limited to 5 Willow Warbler, 2 Chiffchaff and single Sedge Warbler, Lesser Whitethroat, Whitethroat and Yellow Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 15 Greenshank.
Miscellaneous
A Little Owl was the best of the rest.
Butterflies and moths
A total of 51 moths of 22 species were attracted overnight with Feathered Gothic new for the year. Immigrants involved Silver Y and Rusty Dot Pearl.

Another CR Cormorant

22nd August 2019 – rain SW3/4
Offshore
Despite the protestations of weather forecasters the rain was set in for the day and observations over the sea provided just 4 Gannet
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 3 Greenshank.
Ringing
Checking for colour-ringed birds has proved profitable recently and today’s offering was a Cormorant originally ringed at Stack Mooar, Isle of Man on 4th June 2012.

CR Cormorant reveals origins

21st August 2019 – sunny spells SSW3, rain by evening
Offshore
Observations over the sea (0700-0800) provided just 164 Common Scoter, 24 Gannet, 2 Sandwich Tern and a Kittiwake
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds remained at a premium with just 2 Willow Warbler, 2 Sedge Warbler and single Yellow Wagtail and Whitethroat logged.
Diurnal Migration
A few birds were on the move early morning including 12 Sand Martin and a Tree Pipit.
Miscellaneous
A Peregrine was the best of the rest.
Ringing
A Cormorant seen on the island on 20th August 2019 had been ringed at Puffin Island, Anglesey on 22nd June 2019.

Sanderling controls

20th August 2019 – sunny spells W3
Offshore
Observations over the sea (0700-0800) provided just 43 Common Scoter, 2 Sandwich Tern and a Gannet. At high tide 5 Little Tern fed along the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Warblers involved 5 Sedge Warbler, 5 Willow Warbler, 2 Whitethroat and a Lesser Whitethroat.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 10 Greenshank.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin was the best of the rest.
Ringing
Details of a couple of colour-ringed Sanderling seen on the island on 29th April 2019 have just been received, they had been ringed at Ron’s, O Grove, Pontevedra, Spain on 10th January 2018 and 17th January 2019 respectively.

Arctic Skua

19th August 2019 – sunny spells and showers WSW4/5
Offshore
Observations over the sea (0700-0800) provided 57 Common Scoter, 15 Gannet, 4 Kittiwake and single Arctic Skua, Arctic Tern and Fulmar. At high tide 8 Little Tern fed along the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Just 5 Willow Warbler, 2 Whitethroat, 2 Yellow Wagtail and a Wheatear were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 900 Knot and 17 Greenshank.
Miscellaneous
A total of 33 Little Egret were seen and raptors included a Peregrine.

Great and Arctic Skua

18th August 2019 – sunny spells SW5/6
Offshore
Observations over the sea (0730-0930 & 1400-1600) provided totals of 83 Gannet, 54 Common Scoter, 38 Manx Shearwater, 16 Sandwich Tern, 6 Kittiwake, 4 Fulmar, 2 Great Skua and single Shag, Arctic Skua, Arctic Tern and Razorbill.
Grounded Migrants
Two Yellow Wagtail were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 2 Greenshank and a Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A total of 30 Little Egret were seen and raptors included 4 Sparrowhawk and a Merlin.
Butterflies and Moths
The moth trap failed to attract many moth, however, a field record of Vapourer would appear to be the first island record.

Great Skua

17th August 2019 – sunny spells WSW5/6
Offshore
Observations over the sea (0630-0730 & 1030-1130) provided totals of 50 Gannet, 35 Common Scoter, 31 Manx Shearwater, 8 Fulmar, 5 Kittiwake, 4 Shelduck, 3 Sandwich Tern and single Great Skua and Arctic Tern.
Grounded Migrants
Two Spotted Flycatcher and a Yellow Wagtail were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 300 Sanderling and 7 Black-tailed Godwit.

Turnstone from the Canadian Arctic

16th August 2019 – rain/heavy at times S4/5
Ringing
Although the heavy rain washed out the days play details were received for a colour marked Turnstone seen on the island on 12th August 2019 which had previously been ringed at Grise Fjord, Nunavut in the Canadian Arctic on 31st May 2018.

Arctic Skua

15th August 2019 – early showers WNW6/7/8
Offshore
Slightly more productive over the sea (0630-07300) compared to recent mornings with 52 Common Scoter, 29 Gannet, 27 Manx Shearwater, 18 Sandwich Tern, 3 Kittiwake and 2 Arctic Skua.
Grounded Migrants
At least 3 Yellow Wagtail were amongst 34 Pied Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 3 Greenshank and a Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A total of 33 Little Egret were seen.
Butterflies and Moths
The moth trap held 52 of 20 species with Svensson’s Copper Underwing new for the year.

Rain stopped play

14th August 2019 – rain SE3
Offshore
Only 3 Gannet troubled the scorers.
Miscellaneous
A total of 29 Little Egret were seen.

Osprey and Marsh Harrier

13th August 2019 – sunny spells W3
Offshore
The monotony of early morning observations (0630-0730) was only broken by 9 Sandwich Tern and 6 Gannet. High tide produced 8 Little Tern fishing off the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
At least 3 Yellow Wagtail were seen and diversity was provided by 12 Sedge Warbler, 10 Willow Warbler, 3 Whitethroat, 2 Blackcap, 2 Garden Warbler and a Reed Warbler.
Diurnal Migration
Four Tree Pipit and 3 Tree Sparrow were amongst a trickle of Swallow and Sand Martin.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 330 Sanderling.
Miscellaneous
Raptors were well represented with a juvenile Marsh Harrier (0800 & 1030), Osprey (1030) and a Merlin logged.
Mammals
A Harbour Porpoise was offshore.
Butterflies and Moths
A few Painted Ladies remain and the moth trap only held 59 of 18 species, although both Sallow and Herald were new for the year.

Oystercatcher origins revealed

12th August 2019 – sun and showers NW3/4
Offshore
Early morning observations (0700-0800) produced 7 Gannet, 5 Common Scoter, 2 Manx Shearwater and a Kittiwake. At high tide 7 Little Tern fed along the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 7 Sedge Warbler, 6 Willow Warbler, 4 Wheatear, 2 Yellow Wagtail and a Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
A flock of 20 Tree Sparrow were seen.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 10 Greenshank amongst 750 Redshank.
Ringing
A colour marked Oystercatcher was originally ringed on its nesting grounds near Reykjavik, Iceland.

Black Guillemot and Osprey

11th August 2019 – overcast/rain clearing W4
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) produced 126 Common Scoter, 4 Gannet and an Arctic Skua. Later observations (1200-1300), as the rain finally relented, added 215 Manx Shearwater, 29 Gannet, 14 Sandwich Tern, 2 Fulmar and a Kittiwake. In addition, high tide provided 16 Little Tern and a Black Guillemot along the eastern shore.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 2 Yellow Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 11 Greenshank and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
An Osprey fished along the eastern shore at high tide.
Ringing
A colour marked adult Sandwich Tern seen on 10th August 2019 had previously been ringed at Lady Island Lake, Wexford on 16th June 2015 and in the interim period has also been recorded near Swakopmund, Namibia.

Sandwich Tern origins revealed

10th August 2019 – overcast/rain/showers SSW5/6/7
Offshore
Early morning observations (0645-0845) were much hampered by rain which at times reduced visibility to practically zero. However, 305 Common Scoter, 20 Gannet, 15 Manx Shearwater, 7 Sandwich Tern and single Arctic Tern and Fulmar were logged. The high tide tern roost added a further 100 Sandwich Tern and single Common Tern and Little Tern
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 3 Wheatear and a Yellow Wagtail.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 12 Greenshank.
Ringing
A colour marked juvenile Sandwich Tern seen on 28th July 2019 had previously been ringed at Cemlyn Bay, Anglesey on 18th June 2019.

Cormorant origins revealed

9th August 2019 – early rain clearing to sun and showers SE6/5/4/3
Offshore
Another very quiet morning over the sea (0630-0730) with just a few Sandwich Tern, Common Scoter and Gannet recorded.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 10 Sedge Warbler, 4 Willow Warbler, 2 Yellow Wagtail, 2 Blackcap and 2 Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
A group of 3 Swift flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 200 Dunlin, 20 Turnstone and 6 Knot.
Ringing
Two colour ringed Cormorants had previously been ringed at Puffin Island, Anglesey on 18th June 2011 and Denny Island, Bristol Channel on 7th June 2015.

Wood Sandpiper

8th August 2019 – sunny spells WNW2
Offshore
A very quiet morning over the sea (0630-0730) with just a few Sandwich Tern, Common Scoter and Gannet recorded.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 14 Sedge Warbler, 7 Willow Warbler, 6 Yellow Wagtail, 3 Wheatear, 2 Treecreeper, 2 Blackcap and a Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
A total of 18 Tree Sparrow were logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included a Wood Sandpiper and 2 Whimbrel.
Butterflies and Moths
The moth trap held 137 of 34 species with Bordered Beauty new for the year.

Marsh Harrier

7th August 2019 – sunny spells W3
Offshore
Another quiet day over the sea (0630-0730) with just 25 Common Scoter, 6 Sandwich Tern, 5 Gannet, 5 Little Tern, 3 Common Tern and an Arctic Skua logged.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 5 Willow Warbler, 4 Sedge Warbler, 4 Yellow Wagtail and 3 Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
A Tree Pipit was logged.
Miscellaneous
A Marsh Harrier hunted the island.
Butterflies and Moths
Painted Ladies were much reduced in number with just 100 logged.

Black Guillemot

6th August 2019 – overcast/showers SSW4
Offshore
Given the seemingly ideal conditions over the sea early for morning observations (0630-0730) it was disappointingly quiet with just 58 Common Scoter, 26 Gannet, 16 Sandwich Tern, 4 Fulmar and single Manx Shearwater and Black Guillemot.

Arctic Skua and Merlin

5th August 2019 – early showers then bright and sunny SW3/4
Offshore
Early morning observations over the sea (0630-0730) produced 141 Manx Shearwater, 63 Common Scoter, 53 Sandwich Tern, 445 Gannet, 2 Fulmar and single Arctic Skua, Kittiwake and Tufted Duck.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 10 Willow Warbler, 6 Stonechat, 4 Sedge Warbler, 4 Yellow Wagtail and 2 Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
Another Tree Sparrow was logged.
Miscellaneous
Both Peregrine and Merlin were seen.
Butterflies and Moths
Painted Ladies were reduced in number and new for the year in the moth trap was Rhomboid Tortrix.

First Merlin of the autumn

4th August 2019 – sunny spells and thundery showers SE3/2
Offshore
Early morning observations over the sea (0615-0715) produced 47 Common Scoter, 42 Manx Shearwater, 16 Gannet and 16 Sandwich Tern. Later, the high tide added 8 Little Tern,3 Common Tern and an Arctic Skua.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 9 Willow Warbler, 4 Sedge Warbler, 2 Yellow Wagtail and 2 Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
A total of 9 Swift flew through amongst a trickle of Swallow.
Wildfowl and Waders
Three Goosander were seen and waders included 6 Black-tailed Godwit, 8 Whimbrel, 2 Greenshank and 3 Common Sandpiper.
Miscellaneous
A Merlin was the first of the autumn.
Butterflies and Moths
Painted Ladies remained abundant and the moth trap held 534 of 59 species with Grass Emerald, Flame Carpet and Six-striped Rustic all new for the year.

Green Sandpiper

3rd August 2019 – hazy sun SE3/2
Offshore
Early morning observations over the sea (0615-0715) produced 94 Common Scoter, 22 Sandwich Tern, 14 Manx Shearwater, 10 Gannet and a Little Tern.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 11 Willow Warbler, 6 Sedge Warbler, 4 Yellow Wagtail and single Garden Warbler and Whitethroat.
Diurnal Migration
The skies provided 2 Yellow Wagtail and a Tree Sparrow.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 2250 Curlew, 6 Whimbrel, 4 Greenshank, 2 Common Sandpiper and a Green Sandpiper.
Butterflies and Moths
Painted Ladies remained abundant and the moth trap held Willow Beauty and Square Spot Rustic - both new for the year.

Wood Sandpiper and Black Guillemot

2nd August 2019 – sunny spells ENE1/2
Offshore
The sea provided more variety than of late (0615-0715) with 80 Common Scoter, 80 Sandwich Tern, 54 Manx Shearwater, 30 Kittiwake, 17 Gannet, 3 Little Tern and single Shag and Black Guillemot logged.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds were represented by 41 Willow Warbler, 20 Sedge Warbler, 18 Whitethroat, 6 Wheatear, 6 Yellow Wagtail and single Spotted Flycatcher, Treecreeper and Great Spotted Woodpecker.
Diurnal Migration
The skies added 3 Swift, 2 Yellow Wagtail, 2 Grey Wagtail and single Tree Pipit and Tree Sparrow.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 144 Turnstone, 10 Greenshank, 2 Whimbrel, 2 Common Sandpiper and single Wood Sandpiper.
Dragonflies
The first Migrant Hawker are now on the wing.
Butterflies and Moths
Another Painted Lady invasion, the most spectacular to date, saw 6345 logged along with 34 Red Admiral. The moth trap held 193 of 51 species with Hedge Rustic new for the year.

Autumn passage begins to build

1st August 2019 – sunny spells NNW3
Offshore
The day started quietly over the sea (0700-0800) with just 56 Common Scoter, 44 Sandwich Tern and 35 Gannet logged. A flock of 90 Sandwich Tern and 22 Little Tern roosted over the tide.
Grounded Migrants
A Treecreeper – the fourth of the autumn, was amongst 40 Willow Warbler, 10 Sedge Warbler, 4 Yellow Wagtail, 4 Wheatear, 3 Whitethroat and a Spotted Flycatcher .
Diurnal Migration
The first Tree Pipit of the autumn flew over along with 20 Swallow.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 7 Greenshank, 3 Whimbrel and a Common Sandpiper.
Mammals
Two Weasels were seen.
Butterflies and Moths
Although 300 Painted Lady were seen the majority of the influx from several days ago appear to have moved on. The moth trap attracted 222 of 40 species with immigrants represented by 4 Silver Y, 3 Diamond-back Moth and a Rusty Dot Pearl.

Mediterranean Gull

31st July 2019 – sunny spells NW3
Offshore
Morning observations (0730-0830) revealed a quiet sea with just 154 Sandwich Tern, 35 Common Scoter, 34 Gannet and 24 Greylag Goose logged.
Grounded Migrants
A Wheatear was seen.
Wildfowl and Waders
The Wigeon remains and waders included 9 Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
An adult Mediterranean Gull was amongst 80 Black-headed Gulls.
Butterflies and Moths
A large overnight attraction to the moth trap saw 387 of 57 species identified, immigrants included 14 Silver Y, 2 Rusty Dot Pearl and 2 Diamond-backed Moth.

Painted Lady invasion

30th July 2019 – sunny spells and thundery showers ENE2
Offshore
Early morning observations (0615-0715) revealed 500 Manx Shearwater, 245 Sandwich Tern, 55 Common Scoter, 46 Gannet, 5 Little Tern and a Guillemot
Grounded Migrants
At least 4 Yellow Wagtail remain and additional grounded birds involved 15 Willow Warbler, 4 Whitethroat and a Wheatear.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 6 Whimbrel.
Ringing
A juvenile Sandwich Tern seen on 28th July 2019 had previously been ringed at Lady’s Island Lake, County Wexford, EIRE on 25th June 2019.
Butterflies and Moths
An invasion of Painted Ladies was noted with 2015 seen while the moth trap attracted 244 of 52 species with Tawny Speckled Pug new for the year.

Marsh Harrier lingers

29th July 2019 – overcast/rain clearing W2/1
Offshore
Observations in early morning drizzle (0715-0815) revealed just 230 Common Scoter, 72 Sandwich Tern and 7 Gannet
Grounded Migrants
At least 2 Yellow Wagtail remain and additional grounded birds involved 25 Willow Warbler and 12 Whitethroat.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 40 Bar-tailed Godwit, 7 Greenshank, 2 Common Sandpiper and a Black-tailed Godwit.
Miscellaneous
A Marsh Harrier continued to hunt over island.
Butterflies and Moths
An influx of Painted Ladies was noted with 165 seen while moths included The Olive - the first of the year.

Marsh Harrier

28th July 2019 – overcast/rain clearing later WNW3/4
Offshore
Observations as the rain cleared (1200-1300) were limited to 70 Sandwich Tern, 2 Arctic Tern and single Little Tern and Shag.
Grounded Migrants
At least 3 Yellow Wagtail and a handful of Willow Warbler remained.
Wildfowl and Waders
The Wood Sandpiper remains and additional waders included 8 Greenshank and 8 Whimbrel.
Miscellaneous
A Marsh Harrier hunted over the island.
Butterflies and Moths
Attractions to the moth trap were much reduced by overnight rain but included 14 Silver Y and Small Wainscot – the latter the first of the year.

Wood Sandpiper remains

27th July 2019 – overcast/rain/calm
Offshore
Early morning observations (0615-0715) produced 305 Common Scoter, 31 Manx Shearwater, 16 Gannet, 10 Sandwich Tern and two first-summer Mediterranean Gull.
Grounded Migrants
Yellow Wagtail increased to four birds while 12 Willow Warbler and a Blackcap were also logged.
Wildfowl and Waders
The Wood Sandpiper remains and additional waders included 630 Dunlin, 50 Sanderling, 10 Greenshank, 8 Black-tailed Godwit, 8 Whimbrel, 6 Snipe and 2 Common Sandpiper.
Miscellaneous
The long-staying Hooded x Carrion Crow put in another appearance.
Mammals
An Otter was seen.
Butterflies and Moths
Attractions to the moth trap overnight included Brown-line Bright-eye and Haworth’s Minor – both new for the year.

Breeding Water Rail?

26th July 2019 – sunny spells/calm then S1
Offshore
Early morning observations (0600-0700) produced 66 Common Scoter, 57 Manx Shearwater, 36 Gannet, 14 Sandwich Tern and a Little Tern.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 3 Willow Warbler while the long-staying Yellow Wagtail was joined by a second bird.
Diurnal Migration
A total of 14 Swift flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 100 Sanderling and single Common Sandpiper, Greenshank, Black-tailed Godwit and Snipe.
Breeding Birds
Two Water Rail called from suitable breeding habitat.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 264 moths of 65 species were attracted overnight with immigrants represented by The Vestal and Silver Y. Straw Underwing, Small Rufous, Dot Moth, Mouse Moth and Chequered Grass-veneer were all new for the year with the latter appearing to be the first island record.

Wood Sandpiper new in

25th July 2019 – sunny spells/hot SE2
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) produced 250 Manx Shearwater, 54 Common Scoter, 34 Gannet, 10 Sandwich Tern and single Great Crested Grebe and Puffin .
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 2 Willow Warbler and single Blackcap, Whitethroat and Robin along with the long-staying Yellow Wagtail.
Diurnal Migration
A group of 6 Swift flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders were again on the move over the sea early morning with 257 Dunlin, 31 Sanderling, 11 Redshank and 10 Black-tailed Godwit amongst the species logged. In addition, the island’s pools added 260 Redshank, 46 Dunlin, 12 Greenshank, 2 Common Sandpiper and a Wood Sandpiper
Butterflies and Moths
The trap attracted 158 of 51 species with Bird Cherry Ermine, Triangle Plume and Dun-bar new for the year.

Waders on the move

24th July 2019 – sunny spells S2
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) produced 184 Common Scoter, 80 Sandwich Tern, 43 Gannet, 41 Manx Shearwater, 2 Little Tern, 2 Kittiwake and an Arctic Tern.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 6 Willow Warbler and the long-staying Yellow Wagtail.
Diurnal Migration
A group of 3 Swift flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders were on the move over the sea early morning with 168 Dunlin, 27 Black-tailed Godwit, 26 Oystercatcher, 8 Turnstone, 4 Sanderling, 3 Knot and 2 Redshank logged.
Butterflies and Moths
The trap attracted 116 of 52 species with Flounced Rustic and Tawny-barred Angle both new for the year – the latter was also just the second island record and the first for 22 years. Butterflies were again on the wing with 54 Gatekeeper, 40 Meadow Brown, 31 Large White, 21 Green-veined White, 11 Red Admiral, 5 Small White, 3 Wall Brown, 3 Small Tortoiseshell, 3 Speckled Wood, 2 Comma and single Painted Lady and Peacock recorded.

First autumnal Wigeon and Wheatear

23rd July 2019 – hot and sunny after overcast start S1/2
Offshore
Early morning observations (0700-0800) revealed a quiet sea with just 48 Common Scoter, 20 Sandwich Tern, 16 Gannet, 2 Little Tern and 2 Shag logged.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded birds involved 5 Willow Warbler, 3 Whitethroat and single Wheatear and Yellow Wagtail.
Diurnal Migration
A group of 14 Swift were overhead.
Wildfowl and Waders
The first Wigeon has returned and waders included 80 Sanderling and 3 Whimbrel.
Dragonflies
The hot and sunny conditions brought the dragonflies out with 325 Common Blue Damselfly, 85 Common Darter, 10 Blue-tailed Damselfly, 9 Emperor Dragonfly, 8 Brown Hawker, 3 Black-tailed Skimmer and single Red-veined Dater and Common Hawker logged.
Butterflies and Moths
Again a small overnight attraction in the moth trap which produced Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing and Ruby Tiger - both new for the year. The afternoon sunshine saw many butterflies on the wing with 340 Gatekeeper, 175 Meadow Brown, 16 Small Copper, 14 Common Blue, 7 Small White, 6 Large White, 5 Large Skipper, 5 Small Skipper – a second colony, 4 Speckled Wood, 2 Small Heath, 2 Peacock, 2 Green-veined White, 2 Dark Green Fritillary and single Red Admiral, Grayling and Comma logged. Though, it would appear that the Painted Lady invasion earlier in the month has moved on.

Windy day

22nd July 2019 – sunny spells SW5/6/7
Offshore
Early morning observations (0645-0845) yielded 270 Sandwich Tern, 235 Gannet, 14 Manx Shearwater, 10 Common Scoter, 10 Guillemot, 7 Fulmar, 3 Arctic Skua, 3 Little Tern and an Arctic Tern.
Grounded Migrants
A Spotted Flycatcher was logged.
Diurnal Migration
Three Swift flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 7 Black-tailed Godwit and a Whimbrel.
Butterflies and Moths
Overnight rain and wind severely reduced moth attraction although Pale Mottled Willow was new for the year.

Quiet day

21st July 2019 – overcast SSW2/3
Offshore
Early morning observations (0645-0745) produced 180 Manx Shearwater, 116 Common Scoter, 52 Gannet and 26 Sandwich Tern.
Grounded Migrants
A few Willow Warbler, Blackcap and Whitethroat were logged.
Diurnal Migration
Two Grey Wagtail flew through.
Butterflies and Moths
Rosy Rustic was new for the year.

Cetti’s Warbler

20th July 2019 – overcast/early rain and drizzle SSE2 then WNW3/5
Rarities
A Cetti’s Warbler was in the reeds and juncus along the edge of the pond viewed from the boardwalk running through the scrape at South Walney mid-morning.
Offshore
A rain delayed seawatch on the rising tide (1100-1330) was dominated by Manx Shearwater with 1050 birds recorded. However, variety was also the order of the day with 192 Sandwich Tern, 85 Gannet, 48 Common Scoter, 8 Guillemot, 8 Kittiwake, 7 Little Tern, 2 Great Skua and single Arctic Skua and Arctic Tern also logged.
Grounded Migrants
Single Willow Warbler and Whitethroat were the only additional grounded migrants recorded.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 63 Dunlin, 3 Greenshank and 2 Whimbrel.
Butterflies and Moths
A Hummingbird Hawkmoth, The Crescent and Twin spot Carpet were amongst a small catch with the latter two first for the year.

Seawatch 2.0

19th July 2019 – overcast/rain at times SSE3/4
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) ahead of the approaching rain front produced 310 Manx Shearwater, 133 Sandwich Tern, 117 Common Scoter, 35 Gannet, 3 Razorbill, 2 Shag, 2 Arctic Skua and single Little Tern and Arctic Tern.
Grounded Migrants
Single Willow Warbler and Yellow Wagtail were the only obviously grounded migrants recorded.
Diurnal Migration
The obligatory Swift again flew through.
Wildfowl and Waders
Waders included 23 Sanderling, 21 Dunlin, 7 Knot, 3 Turnstone and a Whimbrel.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 152 moths of 42 species were attracted to the moth trap overnight with Double Lobed and Garden Rose Tortrix new for the year.

Seawatch

18th July 2019 – sunny spells SW3
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) revealed 340 Manx Shearwater, 180 Common Scoter, 43 Gannet, 23 Sandwich Tern, 16 Guillemot, 2 Kittiwake and single Red-breasted Merganser and Razorbill

Yellow Wagtail double

17th July 2019 – overcast SSE1/2, rain SW3/4 later
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) and additional observations ahead of the weather front (1100-1300) combined to provide variety rather than quantity with 114 Manx Shearwater, 95 Gannet, 23 Guillemot, 21 Sandwich Tern, 15 Little Tern, 6 Black-tailed Godwit, 5 Common Scoter, 5 Arctic Tern and single Puffin, Shag, Arctic Skua, Razorbill and Kittiwake logged.
Grounded Migrants
Two Yellow Wagtail were the only obviously grounded migrants recorded.
Diurnal Migration
The obligatory Swift flew through.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 173 moths of 48 species were attracted to the moth trap overnight with Marbled Beauty, Rivulet, Small Angle Shades, Triple Spotted Clay, Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing and Coast Dart all new for the year.

Stock Dove new for year

16th July 2019 – cloudy start then warm and sunny SW2
Offshore
Early morning observations (0630-0730) were led by single Arctic Skua and Shag but otherwise it was fairly quiet with only 55 Gannet, 37 Common Scoter, 10 Sandwich Tern, 6 Little Tern, 6 Manx Shearwater, 6 Guillemot and 3 Arctic Tern recorded.
Grounded Migrants
Grounded migrants involved 4 Willow Warbler, 3 Whitethroat and single Chiffchaff and Blackcap.
Diurnal Migration
Another Swift flew through.
Miscellaneous
A Stock Dove was the first of the year.
Butterflies and Moths
A total of 152 moths of 55 species were attracted overnight with Thistle Ermine, Yellow-tail and Grey Dagger new for the year.